Scrum is a process framework is a framework within which you can employ various processes and techniques.

It consists of roles, events, artefacts, and rules, all of which serve a specific purpose and are essential for success.

The rules of Scrum bind these together, governing their relationships and their interactions.

Scrum Theory

Scrum is founded on empirical process control theory, that asserts that knowledge comes from experience, and then making decisions based on what is known. Scrum employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimise predictability and control risk.

Three pillars uphold every implementation of empirical process control: transparency, inspection, and adaptation.


The process must be visible to those responsible for the outcome, to provide a shared understanding.


Scrum users must frequently inspect Scrum artefacts and progress toward a Sprint Goal to detect undesirable variances.


If an inspector determines that one or more aspects of a process deviate outside acceptable limits, adjustment should be made as soon as possible to minimise further deviation.

Scrum prescribes four formal events for inspection and adaptation, as described in the Scrum Events section of this document:

  • Sprint Planning
  • Daily Scrum
  • Sprint Review
  • Sprint Retrospective

The Scrum Roles

Product Owner, the Development Team, and Scrum Master.

Scrum Teams deliver products iteratively and incrementally, maximising opportunities for feedback, and to ensure a potentially useful version of working product is always available.

The Product Owner

The Product Owner is responsible for maximising the value of the product.

The Development Team

The Development Team consists of professionals who do the work of delivering a potentially releasable Increment of “Done” product at the end of each Sprint

The Scrum Master

The Scrum Master is a servant-leader for the Scrum Team, who helps maximise the value created by the Scrum Team.

Scrum Events

The Sprint

The heart of Scrum is a Sprint, a time-box during which a usable, and potentially releasable product Increment is created.

Sprint Planning

The work to be performed in the Sprint is planned as the collaborative work of the entire Scrum Team.

Daily Scrum

The Daily Scrum is a time-boxed event for the Development Team to synchronise activities and create a plan for the next 24 hours.

Sprint Retrospective

The Sprint Retrospective is an opportunity for the Scrum Team to inspect itself and create a plan for improvements to be enacted during the next Sprint.